Cross-site scripting is a computer security vulnerability enabling an attacker to inject malicious code into a Web page that will be executed by the Web browser when other users view the page. If your Web application accepts data from the user and then outputs that data unaltered in HTML, then it is vulnerable because user-controlled data might contain executable code.

Since JSP 2.0, EL expressions can appear in the template text:

<h1>Hello, ${}</h1>

Unfortunately, the JSP container does not escape expression values, so if the expression contains user-controlled data, then cross-site scripting is possible. JSTL provides a couple of ways to sanitize the output. The c:out tag escapes XML characters by default:

<c:out value="${}"/>

Alternatively, the EL function fn:escapeXml also escapes XML characters:


The default option should be the safe option. That’s a sensible engineering principle. If EL values are escaped by default, then you’re protected from coders who forget to wrap expressions in c:out or fn:escapeXml.

Starting with JSP 2.1, a Web application can register a custom ELResolver. I’m going to present a custom ELResolver that escapes EL values, allowing you to use EL in JSPs while preventing cross-site scripting.

A custom servlet context listener registers the custom ELResolver when the application starts. To use it, define a listener in the web.xml file:


Disable Escaping

When you register this custom ELResolver, all EL values will be escaped by default. If you want a JSP to programmatically output HTML, you can resort to a JSP scriptlet or JSP expression, unless the application configured scripting-invalid to true.

Another way uses a custom tag to surround JSP code in which EL values should not be escaped:

<%@ taglib prefix="enhance" uri="" %>

<enhance:out escapeXml="false">
  I hope this expression returns safe HTML: ${}

The escapeXml attribute is true by default. You must explicitly set it to false in the tag to disable escaping.


The servlet context listener’s contextInitialized method calls the JspApplicationContext.addELResolver method to register the custom ELResolver.

    public void contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent event) {
                .addELResolver(new EscapeXmlELResolver());

The addELResolver method inserts the custom ELResolver into a chain of standard resolvers. When evaluating an expression, the JSP container consults the chain of resolvers in the following order, stopping at the first resolver to succeed:

  • ImplicitObjectELResolver

  • ELResolvers registered by the addELResolver method.

  • MapELResolver

  • ListELResolver

  • ArrayELResolver

  • BeanELResolver

  • ScopedAttributeELResolver

This presents a slight problem because the custom ELResolver wants to escape the value that would have resulted from consulting the chain. When asked for a value, the custom ELResolver invokes the chain of resolvers. The custom ELResolver is itself in the chain of resolvers, so before invoking the chain, it sets a flag telling itself to do nothing when its turn in the chain comes around.

    private boolean gettingValue;

    public Object getValue(ELContext context, Object base, Object property)
        throws NullPointerException, PropertyNotFoundException, ELException
        if (gettingValue) {
            return null;

        gettingValue = true;
        Object value = context.getELResolver().getValue(
                context, base, property);
        gettingValue = false;

        if (value instanceof String) {
            value = EscapeXml.escape((String) value);
        return value;

There’s a resolver in the chain before the custom ELResolver. This resolver, ImplicitObjectELResolver, will be invoked twice. First, before reaching the custom ELResolver, and again when the custom ELResolver invokes the chain. Multiple invocations of ImplicitObjectELResolver is harmless because ImplicitObjectELResolver had to fail in order for the custom ELResolver to be invoked. When the custom ELResolver invokes the chain, the ImplicitObjectELResolver will fail again.

A resolver indicates success by setting the propertyResolved property of the ELContext to true. When consulting the chain, one of the resolvers very likely set this property to true, so no other resolvers are invoked after returning from the custom ELResolver.